VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Refrigerant Circuit Pipes and Hoses
  Caution Non-approved tools or materials such as leak sealing additives can cause damage or malfunctions in the system. Only use tools and materials approved by the manufactu ...

Notes on tow-starting
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings Vehicles should not be tow-started wherever possible. Use jump leads to start the engine instead . For technical reasons, the following vehicles cannot be tow-started: Vehicles with an automatic gearbox. If ...

Battery with Visual Indicator, Standard
This is a maintenance-free battery with liquid electrolyte (wet battery).   WARNING Do not check or charge batteries that have a visual indicator that is bright yellow. Jump starting must ...

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