VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Pedals
Fig. 108 Pedals in vehicles with a manual gearbox: ① accelerator, ② brake pedal, ③ clutch pedal Fig. 109 Pedals in vehicles with an automatic gearbox: ① accelerator, ② brake pedal First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings The operation and freedom ...

Cleaning and caring for the dash panel, wooden trims and plastic parts
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings Moisten a clean, lint-free cloth with water and clean the parts. Treat plastic parts inside and outside the vehicle and the dash panel with a special solvent-free plastic cleaning and care product that has been a ...

Long-Term Underbody Protection -D 314 D36 M2-, Gray
Definition: Long-Term Underbody Protection -D 314 D36 M2-, Gray Edition 02/2010 Product description of Long-Term Underbody Protection -D 314 D36 M2-, gray Long-Term Underbody ...

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