VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Tire Service Life, Influences
The following factors influence the service life of a tire in varying degrees. Driving style: Speed Brakes Acceleration Cornering ...

General Information
The following descriptions also apply to Left Rear Cigarette Lighter -U3-, Right Rear Cigarette Lighter -U7-, Rear Cigarette Lighter -U9-, 12 V Socket 2 -U18-, 12 V Socket 3 -U19-, 12 V Socket 4 -U20-, Cigarette Lighter 2 -U25- and 12 V Socket 5 -U26- if ...

Description of the central locking system
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings The central locking system enables you to lock and unlock all the doors, the tailgate and tank flap from one central point: From outside the vehicle with the vehicle key . From inside the vehicle with the centra ...

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