VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Combined curtain and side airbags
Fig. 60 On left-hand side of vehicle: deployment zone of the combined curtain and side airbags (variant A). On the side of the front seat: location and deployment zone of the combined curtain and side airbag (variant B) First read and observe the introductory information and safety warning ...

Retrofitting a towing bracket
Fig. 92 Dimensions and attachment points for retrofitting a towing bracket First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings Volkswagen recommends having the towing bracket retrofitted by a qualified workshop. The cooling system may need to be modified or heat shields ...

Emergency Wheels
Spare Wheel Notes If Necessary, Explain to the Customer the Information About Tires and Refer the Customer to the Owner's Manual.     The following notes listed also apply to spare wheels that are marked wi ...

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