VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
A/C Technology Basic Principles

Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

The following actions must always be carried out in the given order in preparation for changing the wheel : In the event of a flat tyre, park your vehicle on a firm and level surface at a safe distance from the flow of traffic. Apply the handbrake firmly Braking, stopping an ...

Wheel Bolts, Anti-Theft Wheel Bolt
Anti-Theft Wheel Bolts 1 -  Anti-theft wheel bolts 2 -  Cap 3 -  Wheel bolt adapter   Wheel Bolts, Master Sets for Anti ...

This chapter contains information on the following subjects:  → Warning and indicator lamps    → Handbrake    → Parking    → Information on the brakes    → Brake support systems    → Switching the TCS on and off    → Brake flu ...

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