VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Refrigerant Still in Circuit
Discharge the refrigerant circuit. –  Remove malfunctioning component, flush with compressed air, collect escaping refrigerant oil. –  The new component is to be filled with the amount of refrig ...

Car-Net services
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warningsTelematic services (Car-Net), referred to hereafter as Car-Net services, encompass both information services such as extended navigation services, and vehicle-related services such as vehicle status, emergency and breakdown ...

Driving a loaded vehicle
First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings For good vehicle handling when driving a loaded vehicle, please observe the following: Stow all items of luggage securely . Accelerate carefully and gently. Avoid sudden braking and driving manoeuvres. ...

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