VW Polo manuals

Volkswagen Polo Service & Repair Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
 

Physical Principles

When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
 

Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Contents
Fig. 162 Contents of the vehicle toolkit First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings The content of the vehicle toolkit depends on the vehicle equipment level. The following describes the maximum scope. The vehicle toolkit contains the following Screwdriv ...

Mechanical controls on the front seats
Fig. 37 Front left seat controls with convenient entry function. Fig. 38 Front right seat controls without convenient entry function. First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings Front left seat controls with convenient entry function The layout of the controls ...

Cigarette Lighter Socket, Removing and Installing
Special tools and workshop equipment required Cigarette Lighter Release Tool -T40148-   Note The removal and installation for all sockets is performed in the same way and is only described for the ciga ...

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